# Wheatstone bridge

This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2019) |

A **Wheatstone bridge** is an electrical circuit used to measure an unknown electrical resistance by balancing two legs of a bridge circuit, one leg of which includes the unknown component. The primary benefit of the circuit is its ability to provide extremely accurate measurements (in contrast with something like a simple voltage divider).^{[1]} Its operation is similar to the original potentiometer.

The Wheatstone bridge was invented by Samuel Hunter Christie (sometimes spelled "Christy") in 1833 and improved and popularized by Sir Charles Wheatstone in 1843. One of the Wheatstone bridge's initial uses was for soil analysis and comparison.^{[2]}

## Operation[edit]

In the figure, *R _{x}* is the fixed, yet unknown, resistance to be measured.

*R*_{1}, *R*_{2}, and *R*_{3} are resistors of known resistance and the resistance of *R*_{2} is adjustable. The resistance *R*_{2} is adjusted until the bridge is "balanced" and no current flows through the galvanometer *V _{g}*. At this point, the potential difference between the two midpoints (

**B**and

**D**) will be zero. Therefore the ratio of the two resistances in the known leg (

*R*

_{2}/

*R*

_{1}) is equal to the ratio of the two resistances in the unknown leg (

*R*/

_{x}*R*

_{3}). If the bridge is unbalanced, the direction of the current indicates whether

*R*

_{2}is too high or too low.

At the point of balance,

Detecting zero current with a galvanometer can be done to extremely high precision. Therefore, if *R*_{1}, *R*_{2}, and *R*_{3} are known to high precision, then *R _{x}* can be measured to high precision. Very small changes in

*R*disrupt the balance and are readily detected.

_{x}Alternatively, if *R*_{1}, *R*_{2}, and *R*_{3} are known, but *R*_{2} is not adjustable, the voltage difference across or current flow through the meter can be used to calculate the value of *R _{x}*, using Kirchhoff's circuit laws. This setup is frequently used in strain gauge and resistance thermometer measurements, as it is usually faster to read a voltage level off a meter than to adjust a resistance to zero the voltage.

## Derivation[edit]

### Quick derivation at balance[edit]

At the point of balance, both the voltage and the current between the two midpoints (**B** and **D**) are zero. Therefore, , , .

Because of , then and .

Dividing the last two equations by members and using the above currents equalities, then

### Full derivation using Kirchhoff's circuit laws[edit]

First, Kirchhoff's first law is used to find the currents in junctions **B** and **D**:

Then, Kirchhoff's second law is used for finding the voltage in the loops **ABDA** and **BCDB**:

When the bridge is balanced, then *I*_{G} = 0, so the second set of equations can be rewritten as:

Then, equation (1) is divided by equation (2) and the resulting equation is rearranged, giving:

Due to *I*_{3} = *I*_{x} and *I*_{1} = *I*_{2} being proportional from Kirchhoff's First Law, *I*_{3}*I*_{2}/*I*_{1}*I*_{x} cancels out of the above equation. The desired value of *R*_{x} is now known to be given as:

On the other hand, if the resistance of the galvanometer is high enough that *I*_{G} is negligible, it is possible to compute *R*_{x} from the three other resistor values and the supply voltage (*V*_{S}), or the supply voltage from all four resistor values. To do so, one has to work out the voltage from each potential divider and subtract one from the other. The equations for this are:

where *V*_{G} is the voltage of node D relative to node B.

## Significance[edit]

The Wheatstone bridge illustrates the concept of a difference measurement, which can be extremely accurate. Variations on the Wheatstone bridge can be used to measure capacitance, inductance, impedance and other quantities, such as the amount of combustible gases in a sample, with an explosimeter. The Kelvin bridge was specially adapted from the Wheatstone bridge for measuring very low resistances. In many cases, the significance of measuring the unknown resistance is related to measuring the impact of some physical phenomenon (such as force, temperature, pressure, etc.) which thereby allows the use of Wheatstone bridge in measuring those elements indirectly.

The concept was extended to alternating current measurements by James Clerk Maxwell in 1865 and further improved as Blumlein bridge by Alan Blumlein in British Patent no. 323,037, 1928.

## Modifications of the fundamental bridge[edit]

The Wheatstone bridge is the fundamental bridge, but there are other modifications that can be made to measure various kinds of resistances when the fundamental Wheatstone bridge is not suitable. Some of the modifications are:

- Carey Foster bridge, for measuring small resistances
- Kelvin bridge, for measuring small four-terminal resistances
- Maxwell bridge, and Wien bridge for measuring reactive components
- Anderson's bridge, for measuring the self-inductance of the circuit, an advanced form of Maxwell’s bridge

## See also[edit]

- Diode bridge, product mixer – diode bridges
- Phantom circuit – a circuit using a balanced bridge
- Post office box (electricity)
- Potentiometer (measuring instrument)
- Potential divider
- Ohmmeter
- Resistance thermometer
- Strain gauge

## References[edit]

**^**"Circuits in Practice: The Wheatstone Bridge, What It Does, and Why It Matters", as discussed in this MIT ES.333 class video**^**"The Genesis of the Wheatstone Bridge" by Stig Ekelof discusses Christie's and Wheatstone's contributions, and why the bridge carries Wheatstone's name. Published in "Engineering Science and Education Journal", volume 10, no 1, February 2001, pages 37–40.

## External links[edit]

- Media related to Wheatstone's bridge at Wikimedia Commons
*DC Metering Circuits*chapter from*Lessons In Electric Circuits Vol 1 DC*free ebook and*Lessons In Electric Circuits*series.- Test Set I-49