This article is a summary of the major literary events and publications of 1734.
- January – Le Cabinet du Philosophe, a new periodical by Pierre de Marivaux, is unsuccessfully launched; it is discontinued in April.
- June 10 – Copies of Voltaire's Lettres philosophiques sur les Anglais (Letters on the English) are burned, and a warrant is issued for the author's arrest.
- November – George Faulkner begins publication of an edition of Jonathan Swift's Works in Dublin with a corrected text.
- Manoel da Assumpcam begins writing his grammar of the Bengali language.
- Göttingen State and University Library is established.
- Henry Carey, as "Benjamin Bounce" – Chrononhotonthologos (satire on bombastic tragedy)
- William Duncombe – Junius Brutus
- Henry Fielding
- Don Quixote in England
- The Intriguing Chambermaid
- Carlo Goldoni – Belisario
- John Hewitt – Fatal Falsehood
- James Miller – The Mother-in-Law (adapted from Molière's Le Malade imaginaire and Monsieur de Pourceaugnac)
- William Popple – The Lady's Revenge
- James Ralph – The Cornish Squire
- António José da Silva – Esopaida
- James Thomson – The Tragedy of Sophonisba
- Jean Adam – Miscellany Poems
- Mary Barber – Poems
- Stephen Duck – Truth and Falsehood
- William Dunkin
- The Lover's Web
- The Poet's Prayer
- Alexander Pope
- Essay on Man
- An Epistle to Lord Cobham ("Moral Epistle I")
- The First Satire of the Second Book of Horace
- Sober Advice from Horace
- Jonathan Swift – A Beautiful Young Nymph Going to Bed
- Anonymous – A Rap at the Rhapsody (on Swift's 1733 On Poetry)
- Joseph Addison (died 1719) – A Discourse on Antient and Modern Learning
- John Arbuthnot – Gnothi Seauton: Know Yourself
- Francis Atterbury – Sermons
- George Berkeley – The Analyst
- Henry Brooke – Design and Beauty: an Epistle
- Isaac Hawkins Browne – On Design and Beauty
- Dimitrie Cantemir – History of the Growth and Decay of the Ottoman Empire (first publication)
- Robert Dodsley – An Epistle to Mr. Pope
- John Jortin – Remarks on Spenser's Poems
- Lady Mary Wortley Montagu – The Dean's Provocation for Writing the Lady's Dressing-Room (on Swift's "The Lady's Dressing Room")
- Karl Ludwig von Pöllnitz – Mémoires
- Jonathan Richardson – Explanatory Notes on Milton's Paradise Lost
- George Sale – The Koran
- Emanuel Swedenborg
- First Principles of Natural Things
- Opera philosophica et mineralia
- The Infinite and the Final Cause of Creation
- Joseph Trapp – Thoughts Upon the Four Last Things ("Death, Judgment, Heaven, Hell")
- Voltaire – Lettres anglaises
- January 10 – Fleury Mesplet, French-born Canadian writer and newspaper publisher (died 1794
- July 25 – Ueda Akinari, Japanese poet and novelist (died 1809)
- October 23 – Nicolas-Edme Rétif, French novelist (died 1806)
- December 31 – Claude Joseph Dorat (Le Chevalier Dorat), French writer (died 1780)
- Unknown dates
- January 6 – John Dennis, English dramatist and critic (born 1658)
- February 24 – Marie-Jeanne L'Héritier, French writer of fairy tales and salonnière (born 1664)
- March 1 – Roger North, English biographer and lawyer (born 1653)
- April 25 – Johann Konrad Dippel, German theologian (born 1673)
- May – Richard Cantillon, Irish-born French economist (born 1680)
- September 17 – Thomas Fuller, English man of letters and proverb collector (born 1654)
- October – Thomas Lloyd, Welsh lexicographer (born c. 1673)
- October 18 – James Moore Smythe, English dramatist and fop (born 1702)
- "Dictionnaire des journaux 1600–1789". Retrieved 2015-10-08.
- Peter Gay (1965). Voltaire's Politics. p. 67.
- Moody, T. W.; et al., eds. (1989). A New History of Ireland. 8: A Chronology of Irish History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-821744-2.
- Thompson Cooper (1873). A New Biographical Dictionary: Containing Concise Notices of Eminent Persons of All Ages and Countries. Bell. p. 673.
- W.J. Songhurst. Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. Рипол Классик. p. 118. ISBN 978-5-87301-721-8.